The premise, in this case, is "what if there was proof of a soul?" The book can't be completely boiled down to that, there are other big questions explored, such as the afterlife, the nature of morality, and the nature of human experience, but it all starts at the proof of a soul. Someone more shrewd than myself would probably be able to read this and ferret out where Mr Sawyer himself stands on the topic, but he avoids being preachy (except, perhaps, on the topic of monogamy) enough for my eyes to stay rooted to the page rather than rolling around in exasperation.
If you liked [b:Flashforward|337132|Flashforward|Robert J. Sawyer|https://d202m5krfqbpi5.cloudfront.net/books/1316727290s/337132.jpg|327550] this book will be up your alley. If you like "what if we had proof of..." premises, I recommend checking out [b:Anathem|2845024|Anathem|Neal Stephenson|https://d202m5krfqbpi5.cloudfront.net/books/1224107150s/2845024.jpg|6163095].