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text 2017-10-27 01:58
Not What I Expected
The Wisdom of Jane Austen (The Wisdom Series) - Philosophical Library

I was expecting more of an analysis of Austen's works and the literary value therein. Instead, I got a brief biography and collection of quotes. I'm glad this was free, as I would have been sorely upset at wasting money on this.

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review 2017-03-19 08:00
How We Weep And Laugh At The Same Thing
How We Weep and Laugh at the Same Thing (Little Black Classics #29) - Michel de Montaigne

Michel de Montaigne was apparently one the most important French Renaissance philosophers, but I had never heard of the good man before picking up this Little Black Classic which bundles six of his essays.

I was pleasantly surprised. His ideas were not particularly shocking (at least not today) but the meandering way in which it was written made for a nice read. However, while I liked this, I'm not really inclined into reading more of his essays.

Little Black Classics ~ 29

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review 2017-02-01 11:00
Saint Augustine and His Abandoned Concubine: Vita Brevis by Jostein Gaarder
Vita Brevis: A Letter to St Augustine - Jostein Gaarder
Das Leben ist kurz = Vita brevis - Jostein Gaarder

During much of European history men shaped the world of things and thought as they believed right and passed over women in silence, if they didn’t hold them in contempt. Highly revered Fathers of the Christian Church like Saint Augustine of Hippo Regius further institutionalised this contempt of women… and of earthly pleasures altogether as shows his autobiography titled Confessiones. In this theological key text he admits that before his conversion to Christianity in 385 he was a man who tasted life to the full. For over ten years he lived with a concubine (probably law forbade a formal marriage) and had a son with her, but in retrospect he regrets this sinful and immoral relationship because it kept him from true love of God. In Vita Brevis. A Letter to Saint Augustine (also translated into English as The Same Flower) the Norwegian writer, philosopher and theologian Jostein Gaarder gave this abandoned woman a voice.


In 1995 in a second-hand bookshop in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Jostein Gaarder comes across an old manuscript in a red box titled Codex Floriae. Its first sentence shows that it’s the letter of a certain Floria Aemilia to Augustinus Aurelius, the Bishop of Hippo Regius in Northern Africa (today: Algeria) who was later to become Saint Augustine. When he translates another sentence, it occurs to him that Floria Aemilia might be the saint’s long-time concubine whom he mentioned in his Confessiones without ever revealing her name. Of course, the author doesn’t know if the seventeenth-century copy is of an authentic letter, but it intrigues him that it might be and he buys it. Back home he makes a copy of the entire letter and sends the original to the Vatican Library for inspection. The Codex Floriae gets lost and the author decides to translate the Latin text from his copy and to publish it as Vita Brevis. A Letter to Saint Augustine. So far in brief what Jostein Gaarder says in his introduction about the actual letter of Floria Aemilia that makes up the major part of the book.


As it soon turns out, the author was right to assume that Floria Aemilia is the concubine of Saint Augustine. The exceptionally intelligent and self-assured woman from Carthage read the Confessiones of her former lover and obviously felt the urgent need to comment on them, notably on the passages dealing with their life together in Northern Africa, Rome and eventually Milan and with the emotional bonds between them that he tries to reduce to sexual desire. But she doesn’t only give her point of view of events (sometimes drifting into bitterness or mockery seeing how religious frenzy distorted his memories and opinions). Thanks to thorough studies of philosophy, theology as well as rhetoric during the years since Augustine sent her back to Carthage, she is able to challenge his notions of (original) sin and morality with great dialectical skill. Above all, she can’t agree with his attitude towards women who are for him the seducers leading men astray from the way to God and Eternal Life. Augustine postulates that all pleasures on Earth are sinful and should be avoided in preparation of life after death, while Floria Aemilia is convinced that pleasures are God-given and that denying them means to deny God’s creation. She supports her arguments with many quotations from classical Greek and Roman sources that Jostein Gaarder points out and explains in footnotes if necessary for understanding.


All things considered, Vita Brevis. A Letter to Saint Augustine isn’t so much a book about Floria Aemilia than it’s about Saint Augustine, his biographical background and above all his philosophy that helped to marginalise women not only in the Christian Church, but in Christian society altogether for more than one and a half millennium. Alone for the critical examination of the Confessiones from a female point of view, it’s a worthwhile read. In addition, it’s well written and easy to follow despite the complex philosophical argument.


Many have wondered, if the Codex Floriae really exists or if the “feminist manifesto” of Floria Aemilia is an invention of Jostein Gaarder. As it seems, the author always refused to clearly answer the question. I think that the book is a gorgeous work of fiction.


Vita Brevis: A Letter to St Augustine - Jostein Gaarder 

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review 2016-11-18 08:00
Aphorisms On Love And Hate
Little Black Classics Aphorisms On Love and Hate - Friedrich Nietzsche

I was a little bit afraid to start this collection of Aphorisms, because the last one I read, another one of the Little Black Classics, was a real disappointment. I'd previously only seen a little bit of Nietzsche in class, but was curious to what he had to say.

I can only speak for this short edition, which had some nice observation on human nature, which I liked although some seemed a bit random and it would have been nice as some more context could have been provided in this edition. On the other hand, his views on women and gender roles are very outdated, especially for someone seeing through a lot of other things. However, he -of course- was also just a man of his time, but I did deduct a star for it.

Little Black Classics #5

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review 2016-08-22 00:00
Parmenides (Philosophical Library)
Parmenides (Philosophical Library) - Plato,Albert Keith Whitaker I think there are three ways to see "The One". The ultimate Good and the source of all reality, our consciousness for when we think, and literally the number '1', each are different ways for how we understand the nature of existence (being). We think about being either by our understanding, our experience, our ideas, our contemplation or our lack of contemplation (Heidegger, e.g.). Each is equally valid in its on way.

I've recently read Hegel's Phenomenology and that led me to his "Science of Logic" and that led me to this book. Hegel borrows heavily from this book. Hegel puts in his movement (dialectic) but he mostly insists that we need to understand the painting as the whole before we can understand the pieces of the painting just as Parmenides would say (actually as Parmenides does say in this dialog).

It is almost as if this book doesn't belong in the works of Plato's Socratic dialogs. So much really shouts out against what Socrates says elsewhere in Plato's dialogs. The 'forms' from our 'ideas' fall under assault by Parmenides. Opposites don't exist (proof by contradiction) are used without mercy against much of what Socrates held to be true. Socrates needs the absolute in order to defeat the sophisticated Sophists and therefore needs a starting point in order to get his negation (all determinations are negations), but he doesn't have it. Our being and becoming, the void and matter, motion and stillness, existence and nothing all need an absolute negation and Parmenides takes that away in this incredibly clever dialog. Kant has to have his intuition categories in order to get the universal. Parmenides gives only "the one".

Heidegger will start with Being (dasein, "understanding ones own understanding about ones understanding") and builds a complicated world structure (always in threes: past, present, and future) and ends in Temporarlity as if he wished to have started with time instead. What is the proper ontological foundation? Being or time? Parmenides will put 'The One" outside of time (temporally) just as the God of an Evangelical will most often be and in my opinion Spinoza does the same but many (if not most)readers of Spinoza seem to disagree.

This is an incredibly important little book which seems to relate to most of the books I've recently have been reading and I wish I had read it before reading some of the others I've recently read (Hegel, Heidegger, Spinoza, Wittgenstein, Gadamer, and Sartre). It's not a hard to follow book and I actually re-listened to parts of it to make sure I was understanding it correctly.
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