Wrong email address or username
Wrong email address or username
Incorrect verification code
George Sand
Amantine-Lucile-Aurore Dupin, best known by her pseudonym George Sand, was a French novelist and memoirist. In 1822, at the age of eighteen, Sand married Baron Casimir Dudevant (1795 – 1871), illegitimate son of Baron Jean-François Dudevant. She and Dudevant had two children. In early 1831 she... show more
Amantine-Lucile-Aurore Dupin, best known by her pseudonym George Sand, was a French novelist and memoirist.

In 1822, at the age of eighteen, Sand married Baron Casimir Dudevant (1795 – 1871), illegitimate son of Baron Jean-François Dudevant. She and Dudevant had two children. In early 1831 she left her husband, after having discovered his last will and testament and, in it, read his opinions on women in general and on her in particular, and entered upon a four- or five-year period of "romantic rebellion." In 1835, she was legally separated from Dudevant and took her children with her.

Sand conducted affairs of varying duration with Jules Sandeau (1831), Prosper Mérimée, Alfred de Musset (summer 1833 – March 1835), Félicien Mallefille (who at the time was her children's tutor), and others; including, probably most prominently, Frédéric Chopin (1837 – 47). Later in life, she corresponded with Gustave Flaubert. Despite their obvious differences in temperament and aesthetic preference, they eventually became close friends. She also engaged in an intimate friendship with actress Marie Dorval, which led to widespread but unconfirmed rumors of a lesbian affair.

Her liaison with the writer Jules Sandeau heralded her literary debut. They published a few stories together, signing them "Jules Sand." Her first published novel, Rose et Blanche (1831), was written in collaboration with Sandeau. She subsequently adopted, for her first independent novel, Indiana (1832), the pen name that made her famous – George Sand.

Drawing from her childhood experiences of the countryside, she wrote the rural novels La Mare au Diable (1846), François le Champi (1847 – 1848), La Petite Fadette (1849), and Les Beaux Messieurs Bois-Doré (1857). A Winter in Majorca described the period that she and Chopin spent on that island in 1838 – 9. Further notable novels of Sand's include Lélia (1833), Mauprat (1837), Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840), Consuelo (1842 – 43), and Le Meunier d'Angibault (1845). Important theatre pieces and autobiographical writings include Histoire de ma vie (1855), Elle et Lui (1859, about her affair with Musset), Journal Intime (posthumously published in 1926), and Correspondence. Sand often performed her theatrical works in her small private theatre at her grandmother's Nohant estate, where she herself had been brought up, where she returned to after her separation from her husband, and where she wrote most of her books.

In addition, Sand authored literary criticism and political texts. She wrote many essays and published works establishing her position, siding with the poor and the working class. When the 1848 Revolution began, Sand started her own newspaper which was published in a workers' co-operative. This allowed her to publish more political essays. She wrote "I cannot believe in any republic that starts a revolution by killing its own proletariat."

Sand's reputation came into question not only because of her highly public affairs and (for the 19th century) unconventional attitude towards marriage and partnership, but even more so when she began sporting men's clothing in public – which she justified by the clothes being far sturdier and less expensive than the typical dress of a noblewoman at the time. In addition to being comfortable, Sand's male dress enabled her to circulate more freely in Paris than most of her female contemporaries, and gave her increased access to venues from which women were often barred. Also scandalous was Sand's smoking tobacco in public; neither peerage nor gentry had yet sanctioned the free indulgence of women in such a habit, especially in public (though Franz Liszt's paramour Marie d'Agoult affected this as well, smoking large cigars). These and other behaviors were exceptional for a woman of the early and mid-19th century, when social codes – especially in the upper classes – were of the utmost importance. As a consequence of many unorthodox aspects of her lifestyle, Sand was obliged to relinquish some of the privileges appertaining to a baroness – though, interestingly, the mores of the period did permit upper-class wives to live physically separated from their husbands, without losing face, provided the estranged couple exhibited no blatant irregularity to the outside world.

Poet Charles Baudelaire was a contemporary critic of George Sand, calling her "stupid, heavy and garrulous" and her ideas on morals as of "the same depth of judgment and delicacy of feeling as those of janitresses and kept women." Other writers of the period, however, differed in their assessment. Flaubert, by no means an indulgent or forbearing critic, was an unabashed admirer. Honoré de Balzac, who knew Sand personally, once said that if someone thought George Sand wrote badly, it was because their own standards of criticism were inadequate. He also noted that her treatment of imagery in her works showed that her writing had an exceptional subtlety, having the ability to "virtually put the image in the word." – Today she is seen as an important champion of women's rights and noted particularly for her detailed correspondence, as well as her memoirs and diaries (Histoire de ma vie and Journal Intime), which not only chronicle her personal life but also give a vivid portrayal of 19th century Paris and France, and of the many notable personalities with whom she interacted.
show less
Birth date: 1804-07-01
Died: 1876-06-08
George Sand's Books
Recently added on shelves
George Sand's readers
Share this Author
Community Reviews
BrokenTune rated it 4 years ago
‘You’ve been unbelievably imprudent!’ said Raymon, carefully closing the door behind him. ‘And my servants know you’re here! They’ve just told me.’ ‘I made no secret of my presence,’ she replied coldly, ‘and, as for the word you use, I think it ill-chosen.’ ‘I said imprudent; I ought to have said ...
Kathryn Lively, Reader
Kathryn Lively, Reader rated it 6 years ago
I have only read one other Sand work, and I preferred that one. This was her first novel, which I found too ambitious and bloated. It reminded me a bit of Madame Bovary, but that was written afterward, so I wonder if Flaubert found influence in this. Either way, not a favorite.
Batgrl: Bookish Hooha
Batgrl: Bookish Hooha rated it 7 years ago
George Sand (actually Amantine-Lucile-Aurore Dupin) has been on my TBR list for some time. Actually, she was on the Really You Still Haven't Read This Author, Even Though References To Her Keep Popping Up In Your Reading list, until my list names began getting longer and longer and I lost track. S...
The Book Nerd
The Book Nerd rated it 8 years ago
“A day will come when everything in my life will be changed, when I shall do good to others, when some one will love me, when I shall give my whole heart to the man whi gives ne his; neanwhile, U will suffer in silence and keep my love as a reward for him who shall set me free.”i thought Indiana was...
What I'm reading
What I'm reading rated it 8 years ago
Consuelo along with La Comtesse de Rudolstadt are among my favourite nineteen century novels. It's George Sand's masterpiece and bizarrely they were the books she wrote in the worst of times, always on the run, always on deadline. Writing in the dead on night, after all the visitors were asleep, sit...
see community reviews
Need help?