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text 2015-04-02 03:12
Hass & Associates Online Reviews: Die Entwicklung von hacking

Computerhacker war einst das Reich der neugierigen Teenager. Es ist nun die Arenader Regierung Spione, professionelle Diebe und Soldaten Of Fortune.

 

Heute ist es um das Geld. Das ist, warum chinesische Hacker brach in Lockheed Martinund stahlen die Blaupausen, die Billionen-Dollar-F-35-Kampfjet. Es ist auch, warumrussische Hacker in westlichen Öl- und Gas-Unternehmen seit Jahren eingeschlichenhaben.

 

Die Stangen sind auch höher. Im Jahr 2010 rutschte Hacker eine "digitale Bombe" inder Nasdaq, die fast die Börse sabotierten. Im Jahr 2012 ruiniert Iran 30.000 Computerbei Öl aus Saudi Aramco.

 

Und denken Sie an den riesigen (und noch unbekannten) Schaden von NordkoreasCyberangriff auf Sony Pictures im vergangenen Jahr. Computer wurden zerstört,Führungskräfte peinliche e-Mails wurden ausgesetzt, und das gesamte Filmstudiowurde ins Chaos ausgelöst.

 

Es war nicht immer so. Hacking hat tatsächlich einige ziemlich unschuldig undharmlos-Anfänge.

 

Neugier erstellt die hacker

 

Das gesamte Konzept von "hacking" gekeimt vom Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology Fast 50 Jahren. Informatik-Studenten es entlehnt den Begriff aus einerGruppe von Modell-Bahn-Enthusiasten, die "elektrische Gleise und Switches in 1969zur Leistungsverbesserung gehackt".

 

Diese neue Hacker waren schon herauszufinden, wie Computer-Software und Hardware zu beschleunigen, zu verändern, auch wenn die Wissenschaftler AT&T BellLabs UNIX, eines der weltweit ersten wichtigen Betriebssysteme entwickelt wurden.

 

Hacking, wurde die Kunst herauszufinden, einzigartige Lösungen. Es dauert eineunersättliche Neugier, wie die Dinge funktionieren. Hacker wollte Technologie arbeitenbesser oder anders machen. Sie waren nicht von Natur aus gut oder schlecht, nurclever.

 

In diesem Sinne waren die erste Generation der wahre Hacker "Phreakers," eine Reihevon amerikanischen Punks, die mit der Nation-TK-Anlage gespielt. Im Jahr 1971entdeckten sie, dass wenn Sie eine bestimmte schrillen Ton Pfeife, 2600-Hertz, SieAT&T die Langstrecken-switching-System zugreifen können.

 

Sie würde internationale Telefonanrufe tätigen, nur so zum Spaß, es zu erforschen, wie das Telefonnetz eingerichtet wurde.

 

Dies war Lo-Fi-Zeug. Die berühmtesten Phreaker erwarb John Draper (aka "Cap ' n Crunch) seinen Spitznamen, weil er erkannte, dass die Spielzeug-Pfeife in Müslischachteln verschenkt nur den richtigen Ton ausgegeben. Diese ausgebildeten Ingenieur nahm dieses Konzept auf die nächste Ebene durch den Aufbau einer benutzerdefiniertes "Blue Box" diese kostenlose Anrufe tätigen.

 

Diese Schleichwerbung Kästchen war eine neuartige Idee, dass junge Ingenieure Steve Wozniak und Steve Jobs gestartet, bauen und verkaufen selbst. Das sind die Jungs der später auf Apple zu starten.

 

Spike-Draht betrug, und das FBI Griff hart gegen Phreakers und ihre Blue-Boxen. Die Gesetze passen nicht ganz, though. Kinder wurden angeklagt, belästigende Anrufe und dergleichen zu machen. Aber Bundesbeamte könnte nicht dieses Phänomen Einhalt zu Gebieten.

 

Eine versierte, neugierige und leicht anti-autoritäre Gemeinschaft war geboren.

 

Eine neue Welle von Hacker

 

Die nächste Generation kam Anfang der 80er Jahre, wie Menschen PCs für ihre Häuser gekauft und sie bis das Telefonnetz angeschlossen. Im Web war noch am Leben, aber Computer könnte noch miteinander kommunizieren.

 

Dies war das Goldene Zeitalter der hacken. Diese neugierige Kinder erschlossen in welchem Computersystem finden konnte, um nur zu erkunden. Einige brachen in Computer-Netzwerken in Unternehmen. Die anderen sollten Drucker in Krankenhäusern Hunderte von Meilen entfernt, Papier nur spuckte. Und die ersten digitalen Treffpunkte entstanden. Hacker traf auf nur-Text Bulletin-Board-Systemen zu reden, Phreaking, Computer-Passwörter und Tipps zu teilen.

 

1983 Film "Kriegsspiele" wird diese genau dargestellt, nur die Auswirkungen waren verheerend. Darin ein Teenager im US-Bundesstaat Washington versehentlich einen militärischen Computer erschließt und fast bringt die Welt zum Ausbruch eines Atomkrieges. Es ist keine Überraschung, dann, das das FBI hoch war Alarmieren Sie Jahr und verhaftet sechs Jugendliche in Milwaukee--die sich die 414s nach ihrer Vorwahl--nannten Wenn sie in das Los Alamos National Laboratory, eine Atomwaffe-Forschungseinrichtung erschlossen.

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text 2015-04-02 02:28
Hass and Associates Online Reviews: De dreiging van fraude evolueert; zijn uw besturingselementen?



Wanneer u wordt gevraagd, zal veel zakelijke eigenaren keihard ontkennen dat fraude of wangedrag in hun organisatie zou kunnen gebeuren. Hun ontkenning is meestal gebaseerd op de overtuiging dat passende controles aanwezig zijn of dat elke werknemer loyaal en betrouwbaar is. Helaas zijn er vele voorbeelden waar controles en loyaliteit afwezig zijn. Het resultaat kan zijn een katastrofisch verlies.

 

In de 2014 MNP fraude enquête, 33% van de onderzochte in Brits-Columbia bedrijven gemeld zijn het slachtoffer van fraude. Onmiddellijk na het incident, business eigenaren geloofden dat hun risico op fraude was hoger. Vijf jaar na dato, hun waargenomen risico teruggebracht tot hetzelfde niveau als dat van niet-slachtoffers, met slechts 2% van de beoordeling van hun risico op fraude zo hoog. Terwijl de reden voor de verminderde bezorgdheid niet bekend is, het lijkt erop dat zelfgenoegzaamheid met betrekking tot de dreiging verhoogt de gebeurtenis naarmate verre.

 

De resultaten toonden ook aan dat het risico van fraude verhoogd met het aantal werknemers: 49% van de bedrijven met 25 of meer werknemers gemeld heb een slachtoffer van fraude, tegenover 26% van de bedrijven met minder dan 25 werknemers. In andere woorden, ten minste een kwart van de bedrijven lijden enkele vorm van fraude, met het percentage neemt toe met het aantal werknemers.

 

In orde voor een bedrijf om de fraude risico te beheren, moeten eigenaren de kans dat hun bedrijf een slachtoffer kunnen accepteren. Een te grote afhankelijkheid op vertrouwen is vaak een factor in werknemers zijnde kundig voor fraude plegen. Terwijl vertrouwen binnen een organisatie belangrijk is voor het genereren van groei en innovatie, is vertrouwen niet een besturingselement. Controles en saldi moeten worden uitgevoerd en doorgegeven om aan te tonen dat activa zullen worden beschermd.

 

In de enquête MNP, interne controles werden gecrediteerd met het identificeren van 35% van de fraudegevallen, en tips/klokkenluiders werden gecrediteerd met het identificeren van 25%. Deze statistieken ondersteunen de hypothese dat een ethische omgeving met passend beleid en besturingselementen de organisatie beter wordt beschermd.

 

Zo hoe u innovatie en groei bevorderen zonder te teveel risico te accepteren? De eerste stap is om te begrijpen de zakelijke omgeving en ontwerpen vervolgens besturingselementen voor het effectief beheren van de risico's die afbreuk kunnen doen aan de groei, winstgevendheid en reputatie.

 

Bij aanvang, het bedrijfseigenaar is vaak zeer hands-on en krijgen een gevoel voor hoe alles werkt. Als het bedrijf groeit, heeft de eigenaar minder tijd om te controleren persoonlijk operaties. Dit is een cruciaal punt te herzien en te implementeren sterk beleid ondersteund door passende controles, zoals werknemers sommige van de eigenaar van de rechten nemen.

 

Ontwerp een huren proces dat trekt werknemers met een ethisch kompas dat het beste overeenkomt met uw verwachtingen. Zorg ervoor dat u weet zo veel over potentiële werknemers mogelijk. Identificeren lacunes in hun resumés, als ze een vorige probleem zouden kunnen wijzen. Als iemand inhuren met belangrijke verantwoordelijkheid, een grondige credit voltooien en strafblad controleren samen met zoekacties op Internet voor negatieve nieuwsverhalen of boekingen, en te verifiëren.

 

De ontwikkeling van besturingselementen op een punt in de tijd is niet het einde van het verhaal. Bedrijven veranderen en evolueren, en dus moet besturingselementen. Dit is niet beperkt tot interne veranderingen in proces. Overwegen externe factoren, zoals wijzigingen in de voorschriften, toegang tot buitenlandse markten en veranderingen in de technologie.

 

Computers en internetconnectiviteit toegenomen organisaties blootstelling aan fraude. Het is mogelijk om te infiltreren in een bedrijf zonder een werknemer; werknemers worden echter door daders gebruikt om toegang te krijgen. Dit kan worden gedaan via phishing e-mails, computer hacken of het downloaden van toepassingen met malware. Juiste beleidsregels en besturingselementen kunnen beschermen tegen de kans op een geslaagde aanval, de veronderstelling dat alle werknemers zich bewust zijn van het beleid en de besturingselementen en ijverig hen volgen.

 

Zelfs als de juiste beleidsregels en besturingselementen aanwezig, zullen ze niet doeltreffende zittend op een plank of in een medewerker van de inbox. Al te vaak een besturingselement is zorgvuldig ontworpen maar niet is gevolgd, omdat de werknemer niet zich bewust van het besturingselement is, het besturingselement niet begrijpt en daarom genegeerd of gewoon is te druk om te goed alle stappen. Communicatie en onderwijs zijn van cruciaal belang voor het creëren van een omgeving waar de essentiële controles worden geëerbiedigd.

 

Zodra besturingselementen zijn ontwikkeld en geïmplementeerd, is een taak voor beheer om regelmatig te controleren dat de procedures worden gevolgd. Bijvoorbeeld, maximumsnelheid borden zijn geplaatst op alle grote wegen, maar er is nog steeds een noodzaak voor politie om eraan te herinneren van stuurprogramma's te gehoorzamen de maximum snelheid. Als medewerkers weten dat beheer naleving van beleid en besturingselementen controleert, zal ze meer kans hen volgen. Bovendien, als werknemers de relevantie van een taak niet begrijpt, zijn ze minder waarschijnlijk om het te voltooien en meer kans om te besteden tijd aan andere activiteiten die leiden grotere waargenomen waarde tot.

 

Hass & Associates Online Reviews

Source: www.biv.com/article/2015/3/threat-fraud-evolving-are-your-controls
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text 2015-03-26 03:01
Hass & Associates Online Reviews on the Evolution of Hacking

Computer hacking was once the realm of curious teenagers. It's now the arena of government spies, professional thieves and soldiers of fortune.

 

Today, it's all about the money. That's why Chinese hackers broke into Lockheed Martin and stole the blueprints to the trillion-dollar F-35 fighter jet. It's also why Russian hackers have sneaked into Western oil and gas companies for years.

 

The stakes are higher, too. In 2010, hackers slipped a "digital bomb" into the Nasdaq that nearly sabotaged the stock market. In 2012, Iran ruined 30,000 computers at Saudi oil producer Aramco.

 

And think of the immense (and yet undisclosed) damage from North Korea's cyberattack on Sony Pictures last year. Computers were destroyed, executives' embarrassing emails were exposed, and the entire movie studio was thrown into chaos.

 

It wasn't always this way. Hacking actually has some pretty innocent and harmless beginnings.

 

CURIOSITY CREATED THE HACKER

 

The whole concept of "hacking" sprouted from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology nearly 50 years ago. Computer science students there borrowed the term from a group of model train enthusiasts who "hacked" electric train tracks and switches in 1969 to improve performance.

 

These new hackers were already figuring out how to alter computer software and hardware to speed it up, even as the scientists at AT&T Bell Labs were developing UNIX, one of the world's first major operating systems.

 

Hacking became the art of figuring out unique solutions. It takes an insatiable curiosity about how things work; hackers wanted to make technology work better, or differently. They were not inherently good or bad, just clever.

 

In that sense, the first generation of true hackers were "phreakers," a bunch of American punks who toyed with the nation's telephone system. In 1971, they discovered that if you whistle at a certain high-pitched tone, 2600-hertz, you could access AT&T's long-distance switching system.

 

They would make international phone calls, just for the fun of it, to explore how the telephone network was set up.

 

This was low-fi stuff. The most famous phreaker, John Draper (aka "Cap'n Crunch) earned his nickname because he realized the toy whistle given away in cereal boxes emitted just the right tone. This trained engineer took that concept to the next level by building a custom "blue box" to make those free calls.

 

This surreptitious little box was such a novel idea that young engineers Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs started building and selling it themselves. These are the guys who would later go on to start Apple.

 

Wire fraud spiked, and the FBI cracked down on phreakers and their blue boxes. The laws didn't quite fit, though. Kids were charged with making harassing phone calls and the like. But federal agents couldn't halt this phenomenon.

 

A tech-savvy, inquisitive and slightly anti-authoritarian community had been born.

 

A NEW WAVE OF HACKERS

 

The next generation came in the early 1980s, as people bought personal computers for their homes and hooked them up to the telephone network. The Web wasn't yet alive, but computers could still talk to one another.

 

This was the golden age of hacking. These curious kids tapped into whatever computer system they could find just to explore. Some broke into computer networks at companies. Others told printers at hospitals hundreds of miles away to just spit out paper. And the first digital hangouts came into being. Hackers met on text-only bulletin board systems to talk about phreaking, share computer passwords and tips.

 

The 1983 movie "War Games" depicted this very thing, only the implications were disastrous. In it, a teenager in Washington state accidentally taps into a military computer and nearly brings the world to nuclear war. It's no surprise, then, that the FBI was on high alert that year, and arrested six teenagers in Milwaukee -- who called themselves the 414s, after their area code -- when they tapped into the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a nuclear weapon research facility.

 

Nationwide fears led the U.S. Congress to pass the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in 1986. Breaking into computer systems was now a crime of its own.

 

The damage of hacking started getting more serious, too. In 1988, the government's ARPAnet, the earliest version of the Internet, got jammed when a Cornell University graduate student, curious about the network's size, created a self-replicating software worm that multiplied too quickly.

 

The next year, a few German hackers working for the Russian KGB were caught breaking into the Pentagon. In 1990, hacker Kevin Poulsen rigged a Los Angeles radio station's phone system to win a Porsche, only to be arrested afterward.

 

The cat-and-mouse game between law enforcement and hackers continued throughout the 1990s. Some hacked for money. Russian mathematician Vladimir Levin was caught stealing $10 million from Citibank. Others did it for revenge. Tim Lloyd wiped the computers at Omega Engineering in New Jersey after he was fired.

 

But hacks were still more of an annoyance than anything devastating, though it was quickly becoming apparent that the potential was there. The stock market, hospitals, credit card transactions -- everything was running on computers now. There was a bone-chilling moment when a ragtag group of hackers calling themselves L0pht testified before Congress in 1998 and said they could shut down the Internet in 30 minutes.

 

The danger was suddenly more real than ever.

 

FROM CURIOSITY TO CRIMINAL

 

The ethos was starting to change, too. Previously, hackers broke into computers and networks because they were curious and those tools were inaccessible. The Web changed that, putting all that stuff at everyone's fingertips. Money became the driving force behind hacks, said C. Thomas, a member of L0pht who is known internationally as the hacker "Space Rogue."

 

An unpatched bug in Windows could let a hacker enter a bank, or a foreign government office. Mafias and governments were willing to pay top dollar for this entry point. A totally different kind of black market started to grow.

 

The best proof came in 2003, when Microsoft started offering a $5 million bounty on hackers attacking Windows.

 

"It's no longer a quest for information and knowledge by exploring networks. It's about dollars," Thomas said. "Researchers are no longer motivated to get stuff fixed. Now, they say, 'I'm going to go looking for bugs to get a paycheck - and sell this bug to a government.' "

 

Loosely affiliated amateurs were replaced by well-paid, trained professionals. By the mid-2000s, hacking belonged to organized crime, governments and hacktivists.

 

FIRST, CRIME: Hackers around the world wrote malicious software (malware) to hijack tens of thousands of computers, using their processing power to generate spam. They wrote banking trojans to steal website login credentials.

 

Hacking payment systems turned out to be insanely lucrative, too. Albert Gonzalez's theft of 94 million credit cards from the company TJX in 2007 proved to be a precursor to later retailer data breaches, like Target, Home Depot and many more.

 

Then there's government. When the United States wanted to sabotage the Iranian nuclear program in 2009, it hacked a development facility and unleashed the most dangerous computer virus the world has ever seen. Stuxnet caused the Iranian lab computers to spin centrifuges out of control.

 

This was unprecedented: a digital strike with extreme physical consequences.

 

Similarly, there's proof that Russia used hackers to coordinate its attack on Georgia during a five-day war in 2008, taking out key news and government websites as tanks rolled into those specific cities.

 

Then there are hacktivists. The populist group Anonymous hacks into police departments to expose officer brutality and floods banks with garbage Internet traffic. A vigilante known as "The Jester" takes down Islamic jihadist websites.

 

What exists now is a tricky world. The White House gets hacked. Was it the Russian government or Russian nationalists acting on their own? Or freelance agents paid by the government? In the digital realm, attribution is extremely difficult.

 

Meanwhile, it's easier than ever to become a hacker. Digital weapons go for mere dollars on easily accessible black markets online. Anonymity is a few clicks away with the right software. And there are high-paying jobs in defending companies like Google or JPMorgan Chase -- or attacking them.

 

As a result, law enforcement tolerance for hacking has fallen to zero. In 1999, the hacker Space Rogue exposed how FAO Schwarz's website was leaking consumer email addresses and forced the company to fix it. He was cheered. When Andrew Auernheimer (known as "weev") did the same thing to AT&T in 2010, he spent more than a year in prison until his case was overturned on a technicality.

 

The days of mere curiosity are over.

 

Source: edition.cnn.com/2015/03/11/tech/computer-hacking-history
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text 2015-03-19 07:51
Hass & Associates Online Reviews about ‘Here is how cyber warfare began — 50 years ago’

 

414 Original Hackers Film(CNN)Computer hacking was once the realm of curious teenagers. It’s now the arena of government spies, professional thieves and soldiers of fortune.

 

Today, it’s all about the money. That’s why Chinese hackers broke into Lockheed Martin and stole the blueprints to the trillion-dollar F-35 fighter jet. It’s also why Russian hackers have sneaked into Western oil and gas companies for years.

 

The stakes are higher, too. In 2010, hackers slipped a “digital bomb” into the Nasdaq that nearly sabotaged the stock market. In 2012, Iran ruined 30,000 computers at Saudi oil producer Aramco.

 

And think of the immense (and yet undisclosed) damage from North Korea’s cyberattack on Sony Pictures last year. Computers were destroyed, executives’ embarrassing emails were exposed, and the entire movie studio was thrown into chaos.

 

It wasn’t always this way. Hacking actually has some pretty innocent and harmless beginnings.

 

Curiosity created the hacker

 

The whole concept of “hacking” sprouted from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology nearly 50 years ago. Computer science students there borrowed the term from a group of model train enthusiasts who “hacked” electric train tracks and switches in 1969 to improve performance.

 

These new hackers were already figuring out how to alter computer software and hardware to speed it up, even as the scientists at AT&T Bell Labs were developing UNIX, one of the world’s first major operating systems.

 

Hacking became the art of figuring out unique solutions. It takes an insatiable curiosity about how things work; hackers wanted to make technology work better, or differently. They were not inherently good or bad, just clever.

 

In that sense, the first generations of true hackers were “phreakers,” a bunch of American punks who toyed with the nation’s telephone system. In 1971, they discovered that if you whistle at a certain high-pitched tone, 2600-hertz, you could access AT&T’s long-distance switching system.

 

They would make international phone calls, just for the fun of it, to explore how the telephone network was set up.

 

This was low-fi stuff. The most famous phreaker, John Draper (aka “Cap’n Crunch) earned his nickname because he realized the toy whistle given away in cereal boxes emitted just the right tone. This trained engineer took that concept to the next level by building a custom “blue box” to make those free calls.

 

This surreptitious little box was such a novel idea that young engineers Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs started building and selling it themselves. These are the guys who would later go on to start Apple.

 

Wire fraud spiked, and the FBI cracked down on phreakers and their blue boxes. The laws didn’t quite fit, though. Kids were charged with making harassing phone calls and the like. But federal agents couldn’t halt this phenomenon.

 

A tech-savvy, inquisitive and slightly anti-authoritarian community had been born.

 

A new wave of hackers

 

The next generation came in the early 1980s, as people bought personal computers for their homes and hooked them up to the telephone network. The Web wasn’t yet alive, but computers could still talk to one another.

 

This was the golden age of hacking. These curious kids tapped into whatever computer system they could find just to explore. Some broke into computer networks at companies. Others told printers at hospitals hundreds of miles away to just spit out paper. And the first digital hangouts came into being. Hackers met on text-only bulletin board systems to talk about phreaking, share computer passwords and tips.

 

The 1983 movie “War Games” depicted this very thing, only the implications were disastrous. In it, a teenager in Washington state accidentally taps into a military computer and nearly brings the world to nuclear war. It’s no surprise, then, that the FBI was on high alert that year, and arrested six teenagers in Milwaukee — who called themselves the 414s, after their area code — when they tapped into the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a nuclear weapon research facility.

 

Nationwide fears led the U.S. Congress to pass the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in 1986. Breaking into computer systems was now a crime of its own.

 

The damage of hacking started getting more serious, too. In 1988, the government’s ARPAnet, the earliest version of the Internet, got jammed when a Cornell University graduate student, curious about the network’s size, created a self-replicating software worm that multiplied too quickly.

 

The next year, a few German hackers working for the Russian KGB were caught breaking into the Pentagon. In 1990, hacker Kevin Poulsen rigged a Los Angeles radio station’s phone system to win a Porsche, only to be arrested afterward.

The cat-and-mouse game between law enforcement and hackers continued throughout the 1990s. Some hacked for money. Russian mathematician Vladimir Levin was caught stealing $10 million from Citibank. Others did it for revenge. Tim Lloyd wiped the computers at Omega Engineering in New Jersey after he was fired.

 

But hacks were still more of an annoyance than anything devastating, though it was quickly becoming apparent that the potential was there. The stock market, hospitals, credit card transactions — everything was running on computers now. There was a bone-chilling moment when a ragtag group of hackers calling themselves L0pht testified before Congress in 1998 and said they could shut down the Internet in 30 minutes.

 

The danger was suddenly more real than ever.

 

From curiosity to criminal

 

The ethos was starting to change, too. Previously, hackers broke into computers and networks because they were curious and those tools were inaccessible. The Web changed that, putting all that stuff at everyone’s fingertips. Money became the driving force behind hacks, said C. Thomas, a member of L0pht who is known internationally as the hacker “Space Rogue.”

 

An unpatched bug in Windows could let a hacker enter a bank, or a foreign government office. Mafias and governments were willing to pay top dollar for this entry point. A totally different kind of black market started to grow.

 

The best proof came in 2003, when Microsoft started offering a $5 million bounty on hackers attacking Windows.

 

“It’s no longer a quest for information and knowledge by exploring networks. It’s about dollars,” Thomas said. “Researchers are no longer motivated to get stuff fixed. Now, they say, ‘I’m going to go looking for bugs to get a paycheck – and sell this bug to a government.’ ”

 

Loosely affiliated amateurs were replaced by well-paid, trained professionals. By the mid-2000s, hacking belonged to organized crime, governments and hacktivists.

 

First, crime: Hackers around the world wrote malicious software (malware) to hijack tens of thousands of computers, using their processing power to generate spam. They wrote banking trojans to steal website login credentials.

 

Hacking payment systems turned out to be insanely lucrative, too. Albert Gonzalez’s theft of 94 million credit cards from the company TJX in 2007 proved to be a precursor to later retailer data breaches, like Target, Home Depot and many more.

 

Then there’s government. When the United States wanted to sabotage the Iranian nuclear program in 2009, it hacked a development facility and unleashed the most dangerous computer virus the world has ever seen. Stuxnet caused the Iranian lab computers to spin centrifuges out of control.

 

This was unprecedented: a digital strike with extreme physical consequences.

 

Similarly, there’s proof that Russia used hackers to coordinate its attack on Georgia during a five-day war in 2008, taking out key news and government websites as tanks rolled into those specific cities.

 

Then there are hacktivists. The populist group Anonymous hacks into police departments to expose officer brutality and floods banks with garbage Internet traffic. A vigilante known as “The Jester” takes down Islamic jihadist websites.

 

What exists now is a tricky world. The White House gets hacked. Was it the Russian government or Russian nationalists acting on their own? Or freelance agents paid by the government? In the digital realm, attribution is extremely difficult.

 

Meanwhile, it’s easier than ever to become a hacker. Digital weapons go for mere dollars on easily accessible black markets online. Anonymity is a few clicks away with the right software. And there are high-paying jobs in defending companies like Google or JPMorgan Chase — or attacking them.

 

As a result, law enforcement tolerance for hacking has fallen to zero. In 1999, the hacker Space Rogue exposed how FAO Schwarz’s website was leaking consumer email addresses and forced the company to fix it. He was cheered. When Andrew Auernheimer (known as “weev”) did the same thing to AT&T in 2010, he spent more than a year in prison until his case was overturned on a technicality.

 

The days of mere curiosity are over.

 

 

Source: www.funvun.com/blog/topic/?topic_id=45
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