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text 2019-03-07 02:28
Humans Are Scutoid: A Brand New Shape Explained

A breakthrough discovery has been made by researchers on a brand-new shape named as Scutoids. Until last week, the medical as well as geometrical science was unaware of such a shape. It’s neither a cube nor a sphere but does resemble to them at some extent. While studying epithelial cells, researcher came up with a discovery of scutiod cells which build blocks of embryos that further form the linings of various organs, even of skin. The research has also explained why these cells are tightly packed, and has complex enclosed structures.

Let’s see how it looks like

Origin of life has always been a mystery to the man-kind, which further raised a query on how a single-cell turned out to be multi-celled organism. But to concern most is the shape acquired by cells while and after the division and packing process. An individual cell twists and turns in accordance to the shape of whole very efficiently. This packing challenge is a geometrical problem depending on the unknown factors which leads a cell to form designated shape. Javier Buceta, biophysicist at Lehigh University and one of the Scutoid’s discoverers briefed it as a prism with a zipper. As per reported to Nature Communications by research biologist, the cells were believed to be an almost replica of the shape of frusta, as in Roman Arch. But here, it was not the same case. The most concerning matter was to be presence of scutoids everywhere and in every living being. This scutoid shape has played crucial role in building blocks for the multi-cellular organisms. It’s sort of odd to say, but without this new shape the complex life might never have seen the light. Meanwhile, the name scutoid was coined by researchers due to its very much resemblance with the shape of scutellum in insects like beetles in the Cetoniidae sub-famiy.

Whereas, an entry at Wikipedia described the shape as a geometric solid between two parallel surfaces—‘the boundary of each surfaces is a polygon, and the vertices of the two end polygons are joined by either by a curve or a Y-shaped connection.

Discovering Scutoids

During an embryonic stage, the tissues start to form into organs by constant folding and bending. At first, scientists believed that to remain tightly packed, they have to be in bottle-shaped i.e. column-shaped. Latter with the help of advanced computer simulations, scientists came to conclusion that the new shape is more complex than they have thought. Before getting into the geometry of shape by hand, they used a computer model to predict most efficient cell shape i.e. scutoids which perfectly connects with the fellow cells in curved as well as flat layers.

Obtained computerised image was unexpectedly quite different than it was assumed before. The results were clearly indicating that the shape should be slightly similar to the prism but with a bizarre triangular surface on one of the edges. This strange new shape shows the perfect fitting of cells with each other. In order to justify this, researchers closely studied fruit fly salivary glands and Zebrafish cells through computer imaging & microscopy, and results were astonishing. These cells were indeed shaped like the predicted ones. The new shape was unknown even to the mathematics, which clarified that the shape was a new discovery itself.

Scutoids discovery will help to comprehend the fundamentals of morphogenesis, developmental biology, and also, how tissue generation and regeneration processes actually works.


Read more info..

Source: insightscare.com/humans-scutoid-brand-new-shape-explained
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review 2018-10-29 04:49
The Book of Humans by Adam Rutherford
The Book of Humans: 4 Billion Years, 20,000 Genes, and the New Story of How We Became Us - Adam Rutherford

TITLE:    The Book of Humans: 4 Billion Years, 20,000 Genes, and the New Story of How We Became Us


AUTHOR:  Adam Rutherford




FORMAT:  ARC ebook


ISBN-13: 9781615195312


NOTE: I received a copy of this book from NetGalley. This review is my honest opinion of the book.




"The author of A Brief History of Everyone Who Ever Lived investigates what it means to be human—and the ways we are (and aren’t) unique among animals.

We like to think of ourselves as exceptional beings, but are we really more special than other animals? In this original and entertaining tour of life on Earth, Adam Rutherford explores how many of the things once considered to be exclusively human are not: We are not the only species that communicates, makes tools, uses fire, or has sex for reasons other than procreation. Evolution has, however, allowed us to develop a culture far more complex than any other observed in nature. The Book of Humans explains how we became the creatures we are today, uniquely able to investigate ourselves. Illuminating the latest genetic research, it is a thrilling account of what unequivocally fixes us as animals—and what makes us truly extraordinary.





On the whole, this book provides an easy to read, overly simplified introduction to human evolution and what makes humans different (or not) from other animals.  Each section covers a different aspect of "humaness", such as tool use, sex, speech development and cultural dissemination.  I found the book a bit bland and lacking in substance as it did not provide any information that I hadn't come across in other books, journal, magazine or internet articles. 

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review 2017-11-04 02:30
I LOVED this novel!
The Price of Humans - J.L. Edwards

I couldn’t get enough of The Price of Humans. This novel follows the story of the dynamic relationship between an unlikely pair, Chaba and George. Chaba witnessed the murder of his father and thinking that justice will never prevail, leads a life of lawlessness. He lives the life of a poor man, wondering where his next meal is going to come from and doing everything he can to provide for his young daughter. George is a factory man that leads a mundane life, but also an easy one. George has a home, nice things, a crazy wife, a big heart, and a need to help people. George becomes almost like a father figure to Chaba, leading him through life, feeding Chaba’s child, and doing what he can to turn Chaba’s life around. But does Chaba really want his life turned around? Does he seek the justice that George thinks he can have?
The suspense in this novel is remarkable, there’s never a moment that doesn’t have you perched at the edge of your seat. What is really appealing to the novel is the amount of truth that is behind it, as it is a mostly true retelling. In the middle of climactic scenes I had to take a step back from the novel to appreciate that these things really did happen, this tragedies are going on, these political “myths” that I’ve read about aren’t so mythic. The Price of Humans is eye opening. intriguing, and definitely worth the read. I highly recommend this novel to anyone that needs to see that justice prevails even in the most unlikely of places.

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review 2017-10-24 17:25
The Gap into Conflict / Stephen R. Donaldson
The Gap Into Conflict: The Real Story - Stephen R. Donaldson

Angus Thermopyle was an ore pirate and a murderer; even the most disreputable asteroid pilots of Delta Sector stayed locked out of his way.  Those who didn't ended up in the lockup--or dead.  But when Thermopyle arrived at Mallory's Bar & Sleep with a gorgeous woman by his side the regulars had to take notice.  Her name was Morn Hyland, and she had been a police officer--until she met up with Thermopyle.
But one person in Mallory's Bar wasn't intimidated.  Nick Succorso had his own reputation as a bold pirate and he had a sleek frigate fitted for deep space.  Everyone knew that Thermopyle and Succorso were on a collision course.  What nobody expected was how quickly it would be over--or how devastating victory would be.  It was common enough example of rivalry and revenge--or so everyone thought.  The REAL story was something entirely different.


I have a negative past with Stephen R. Donaldson’s work. I loathe the Thomas Covenant series and I could only read the first book of the Mordant’s Need duality. I had the second book on my TBR until I realized that the thought of picking it up depressed me profoundly and I decided to let it go.

So it was with distinct reservations that I picked up The Gap into Conflict and no one was more surprised than me when I actually enjoyed it. The subject matter is difficult, but the insights into the main character, Angus Thermopyle, were worth the struggle. And, as Donaldson promises, we get the “real story” about what is going on in his psyche. It’s not pretty, but it is truthful, as he confronts his feelings and admits to himself that he maybe isn’t as rough & tough as he likes to think. It was kind of like getting a peek into the mind of someone like Ariel Castro, the Cleveland kidnapper.

I liked that no character was locked into a role, that everything kept shifting as the novel unfolded. Morn Hyland starts as a victim, but certainly doesn’t end that way. Nick Succorso is set up to look like a hero, but a small foreshadowing by Donaldson indicates that he is no white knight.

I never thought I would ever say this: I’m looking forward to the next book in this Donaldson series!

Book number 266 of my Science Fiction & Fantasy Reading Project.

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review 2017-09-21 19:06
Good Me, Bad Me / Ali Land
Good Me Bad Me - Ali Land

Not recommended for those who have children and/or are sensitive to violence against children.

Milly knows she is different from other children. From other people. But she maybe doesn’t realize just how different. You see, Molly’s mother is a serial killer and she has forced Milly to be Satan’s little helper. It’s much easier to snatch a child if you have one of your own in tow.

What conscience Milly has left has sent her to the police. Yes, she felt bad for the children lying dead in their basement, but what she was truly dreading was the “birthday party” that her mother was planning when she turned “sweet sixteen.” So before the invitations go out to people to come & brutalize her, Milly turns her mother in.

But she had no idea how hard it was going to be to leave her mother behind. Or how difficult it will be to act like she is “normal,” especially when she has been taught by an expert how to read body language, how to manipulate people, how to tell them what they want to hear. She can’t seem to fit in to her foster situation, because she can see altogether too clearly what is going on in their home—and how can she trust a social worker who can’t see that his wife is an addict and his daughter is well on her way to the same state.

If you like this book, I would recommend I Hunt Killers by Barry Lyga. It is a young adult work, but really well done in my opinion. Another child struggling to right himself after being raised by a serial killer dad.

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