TYPES OF RESEARCH AND RESEARCH DESIGN
Types of research
When the methodology chapter begins, the first thing the researcher finds is the definition of the type of research he wishes to carry out.The writer also makes Good Search on design and over writer write my essay for me cheap. The choice of the type of research will determine the steps to follow the study, its techniques, and methods that can be used in it
This can be divided into two main types of Field or Laboratory. Which in turn can be classified into four main types:
- Exploratory Studies: Also known as a pilot study, they are those that are investigated for the first time, or are very few studies investigated. They are also used to identify a problem.
- Descriptive Studies: Describe the facts as they are observed.
- Correlational Studies: They study the relationships between dependent and independent variables, a bone correlation between two variables is studied.
- Explanatory Studies: This type of study looks for the reason of the facts, establishing cause-effect relationships.
The formal process:
This refers to the method used in the study, is divided into:
Deductive method: Part of a general premise to obtain the conclusions of a particular case. It emphasizes the theory, theoretical models, explanation, and abstraction, before collecting empirical data, making observations or using experiments.
Inductive method: Only particular cases are analyzed, the results of which are taken to conclude a general nature. From the systematic observations of reality, the generalization of a fact and theory is discovered. Observation and experimentation are used to reach the generalities of events that are repeated over and over again.
Hypothetical-deductive method: Through observations made of a particular case a problem arises. This leads to an induction process that refers to the problem to a theory to formulate a hypothesis, which through deductive reasoning tries to validate the hypothesis empirically.
The degree of generalization:
It is divided into:
Fundamental research: From the sample of subjects, the research conclusions are extended to the population and are oriented to the conclusions. Its objective is focused on increasing theoretical information and is related to pure research.
Action research: It focuses on generating changes in a studied reality and does not emphasize the theoretical. It tries to unite the investigation with the practice through the application, and it is oriented in the decision making and is ideographic.
The nature of the data:
Its division is:
Quantitative methodology: For any field, the research of Physical-Natural Sciences is applied. The object of study is external to the subject who investigates trying to achieve maximum objectivity. Try to identify general laws referring to subject groups or facts. Their instruments usually collect quantitative data which also includes systematic measurement, and statistical analysis is used as a prominent feature.
Qualitative methodology: It is an investigation that is based on subjective and individual analysis, this is done by an interpretive investigation, referring to the particular.
It focuses on how you want to control the variables or not. It is divided into:
Descriptive research: There is no manipulation of variables, these are observed and described as they occur in their natural environment. Its methodology is fundamentally descriptive, although it can use some quantitative and qualitative elements.
Experimental research: One or several independent variables are manipulated, exercising maximum control. Its methodology is generally quantitative.
Research ex post facto ?: Independent variables are not controlled since the study is based on analyzing events that have already occurred naturally. As the event has already occurred the analysis methods can be descriptive or experimental.
The time in which they are carried out:
Time determines the type of research, there are two types:
Synchronous research: those that study phenomena that occur in a short period.
Diachronic Investigations: They are those that study phenomena over a long period to verify the changes that may occur.
The chronological dimension:
This is divided into.
Historical research is responsible for describing phenomena that happened in the past based on historical sources or documents. It is based primarily on describing the facts.
Descriptive research: Describe the phenomena as they appear today. These can be longitudinal or transverse, qualitative or quantitative.
Experimental research: Predict what will happen if there is any modification in the current condition of a fact, to achieve this apply hypothetical-deductive reasoning and the methodology is usually quantitative. Experiments can be performed in the laboratory or they can be field.
Bibliographic research: It is the bibliographic review of the topic to know the status of the issue. The search, compilation, organization, evaluation, criticism and bibliographic information on a specific topic has value since it avoids the dispersion of publications or allows the panoramic vision of a problem.
Methodological research: Inquire about the theoretical and applied aspects of measurement, data collection, and analysis or of any methodological aspect.
Empirical research: It is based on observation and experimentation, you can use qualitative and quantitative methodology, hypothetical-deductive reasoning, be from the field or laboratory and you can use transverse or longitudinal methods, among others.
The nature of the information:
The information that is collected to respond to the research problem:
Quantitative research: It predominantly uses direct quantitative information. They can be used in the studies of Physical Sciences. They are:
Quantitative studies with secondary data: Which, unlike the previous two, address analyzes using existing data.
Qualitative research: It is one that seeks to describe complex events in its natural environment, with preferably qualitative information. They are usually used in the studies of Social Sciences. The main types of qualitative research are:
Participatory Research: It is a study that arises from a problem that originates in the same community, to improve the standard of living of the people involved in the search for the solution for your assignment writing. Within participatory research you can find:
- Case studies: It is the study of events that are done in one or a few natural groups.
- Ethnographic Study: It is an investigation in which the researcher is inserted, camouflaged in a community, group or institution, to observe, with a previously developed guideline.
Types of Research Design: The accuracy, depth as well as the success of the research results depend on the appropriate choice of research design. Here is a scheme where the different types of research are summarized. Each type of design has particular characteristics, so each one is different from any other and it is not the same to select one type of design as another. The effectiveness of each of them depends on whether it fits the research being carried out. Experimental designs are typical of quantitative research, while non-experimental designs are applied in both approaches. In this way, there are two main research designs, experimental or laboratory and non-experimental research based on the timing of research.
Laboratory or experimental research:
It deals with the orientation directed to changes and developments, both in the field of natural and social sciences. Proper control is an essential factor in the method used. The law of the single variable must be fulfilled in all experimental situations. This research is presented by manipulating an unproven variable, under strictly controlled conditions, to write in what way and for what causes a particular situation or event occurs. This type of research has the following stages:
- Presence of a problem for which a literature review is carried out.
- Identification and definition of the problem.
- Definition of hypotheses and variables and their operation.
- Design of the experimental plan.
- Data reliability test.
- Performance of the experiment.
- Data treatment.
Non-experimental research according to temporalization:
Transversal method: It is the research design that collects data from a single moment and in a single time. The purpose of this method is to describe variables and analyze their incidence and interrelation at a given time.
- Descriptive cross-sectional designs: they are those that aim to investigate the incidence and the values in which one or more variables are manifested.
- Correlational cross-sectional designs: they are responsible for describing relationships between two or more variables at a given time.
- Correlational/causal cross-sectional designs: they are those in which the causes and effects have already occurred in reality (they were given and manifested) and the researcher observes and reports them.
Longitudinal method: It is the research design that collects data over time at specified points or periods, to make inferences about the change, its determinants, and consequences.
- Longitudinal trend or trend designs: those that analyze changes over time (in variables or their relationships), within some population in general.
I would like to thank the author of the blog It helped me with resolving a site issue with my website. When the methodology chapter begins, the first thing the researcher finds is the definition of the type of research he wishes to carry out. The writer also makes Good Search on design and over writer